Almost eighty years after the downfall of the Weimar Republic, scholarship on the subject of Weimar foreign policy has reached the stage, where judgments can be made, however, with different accentuations.
Throughout Weimar historiography there is common agreement that revision of the Versailles Treaty was the ultimate guide and driving force behind Weimar foreign policy making. The ultimate goal was to bring Germany back on the international stage and make it again a respected great power among the European concert. It remained so for the next thirty years.
Zimmermann argues that the problems of Weimar foreign policy were driven by the rigid and unbending policies of the Allied powers, conducted through the regulations of the Versailles Peace Treaty and the reparations issue. In his conclusions, Zimmermann remains within the spirit of interwar historiography, which underestimated or ignored the manifold external, as well as, internal factors that affected Weimar foreign policy.
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In the meantime, scholars investigated various particular issues, such as German-American, -British, -French, and -Soviet relations, and closed remaining gaps within historiography. It is a synthetic study, unmatched until today. Its basic principles were the peaceful mediation of international differences, a liberal foreign trade policy, and a new style of diplomacy designed to give other nations confidence in Germany's reliability and credibility.
He clearly explains the importance of economic factors as the guiding theme of Weimar foreign policy and its orientation toward the West. He argues further that German foreign policy actions have to be regarded within the framework of the European Staatenwelt.
Carl von Schubert, Auswärtiges Amt, and the Evolution of Weimar Westpolitik, 1920-1924
The German Foreign Office was a major player in shaping Weimar foreign policy. Thereby, the authors investigate the role of old school diplomats versus new outsiders from the business world, or political parties, and how they affected foreign policy making. Both books have a handbook character and give a rich overview on historiography and literature on the subject. Most of the literature on US-Weimar relations is devoted to the Stresemann era.
Only after the aggravation of French-German relations and the dangers of an economic as well as political downturn, did the United States finally recognize the importance of American involvement. The Years of Recovery. Todestag von Dr. Carl von Schubert, Bonn, Schuker ed.
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Edward Augustus Holyoke, first president of the Massachusetts Medical Society, was born in Marblehead, Massachusetts, August 1, , and died in Salem, March 31, , thus living to the great age of one hundred years and eight months. His ancestors emigrated from England in and settled in Lynn, Massachusetts.
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His father, Edward Holyoke, minister at Marblehead, was born in Boston and graduated from Harvard College in , was elected president of the college in , and presided over its destinies for thirty-two years until his death in Edward Augustus was the eldest son and the second of eight children. When nine years old his father moved to Cambridge to take up his duties of president of the college, and here the boy received his education, finally graduating from the college with the class of In he began to study medicine with Dr.
Berry, of Ipswich, and remained with him nearly two years, settling in Salem in to pass the rest of his life practising there.
At first patients were few and far between - a livelihood hard to gain - but in the course of time it was said that there was not a single house in town to which he had not been called as physician. In business he was most methodical and during a professional life of nearly eighty years was never once at a greater distance than thirty miles from Salem. Holyoke was twice married, first to Judith, daughter of Benjamin Pickman, who, with her only child, died in ; and second, to Mary, daughter of Nathaniel Viall, a Boston merchant. They had twelve children.