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The anonymisation of people in an urban structure is a motivation for the photographer, just as the search for the specific in the representation of the individual.. Makroskopische und mikroskopische Untersuchungen an verschiedensten Werkstoffen ohne und mit Hilfsmitteln wie Makroskop, Mikroskop, Rasterelektronenmikroskop im Bereich bis ca. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations on the most various materials with and without auxiliaries such as macroscope, microscope, scanning electron microscope within the range to approx.

Determination of material structures , documentation, evaluation of the structures according to different terms and regulations such as grain size, degree of purity, type of structure, and portions.. It was launched in May at a summit meeting in Prague and, for the time being, forms the last part of the complicated structure of the European Neighbourhood Policy.. The research project will bring together and optimize all the steps in the process chain, from the starting materials to the finished solar modules..

The technology development will be aided by direct analytical characterization to give the scientists a better understanding of the effect of process parameters on the structure and interfaces of the solar cells. This knowledge will allow enhancement of the effectiveness of the solar cells.. In the ensuing period it became clear that it would have to be created in stages, steps, and on another basis.. For this reason, in the negotiations on the Treaties of Amsterdam and Nice, as well as in the European Convention Germany championed a gradual adaptation and advancement of the institutional structure , the clarification of areas of responsibility and the corresponding expansion of the democratic quality of EU decisions..

Besides the, for many students new, experience interacting with the mentally ill lies the emphasis of this project in the information transfer regarding the subjective experiences of the mentally ill and the knowledge expansion in regards to the discrimination in every day situations.. The Study Package should animate the students to reflect on the social structure of society and the position of minorities their daily life..

Gisela Spreitzhofer

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Reactivation will enable you to use the vocabulary trainer and any other programs. While the legislative component of this governance has rather clear features, that is not the case for the executive component. Its possible cornerstone, i. However, the future of this panel is uncertain. As further institutions with executive functions, the already mentioned institutions, the Council of Europe and the OSCE, come into consideration; in particular the committee of the Framework Convention has always also examined the situation of minorities in the old EU Member States and detected many shortcomings.

The work of the Network of Experts on Fundamental Rights is based to a considerable extent on the work of these implementation institutions. Lastly the question regarding the judicial function arises; in this respect EU internal governance looks slightly better than that aimed at the East. According to the current case law regarding Article TEC, there is arguably no chance for the Member States or the Council to take action against measures in the form of reports by the Parliament or the Commission.

However, decisions like the establishment of the Network of Experts are assailable. As is generally known, no direct legal action before the ECJ is possible for individuals against measures taken by the Member States. It is, however, conceivable that the ECJ, considerably extending its current competences, could use the preliminary ruling procedure in order to review national measures for their compatibility with principles of law protecting diversity national measures, building on the EC fundamental freedoms and the directives on discrimination.

It has by now a well defined shape, not least because it has been laid down in Articles — TEC concerning employment policy. More important still: according to the prevalent understanding, the open method is an instrument of the European Council, which does not play a leading role in this diversity governance.

Rather, policy assessment by the public appears to be the central instrument of this governance.

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Experience with the governance aimed at the East shows that regular and systematic reports are of great importance and that positive data on the situation of minorities and immigrated groups are necessary if this instrument is to have any effect at all. Other than the diversity governance directed at the transformation countries, the internal governance of cultural diversity can resort to expedient legal criteria.

Guide Individuelle versus kollektive Minderheitenrechte (German Edition)

With respect to the competences, it has to be noted that there is no explicit norm allowing for a human rights, minority, or diversity policy for the Union. It has not yet been clarified which legal basis is required for other measures executed by the Union's institutions. However, in the end it seems hardly disputable that the competence of the Commission, deriving from Article 7 1 TEU, to initiate proceedings before the Council when there is a clear risk of a serious breach by a Member State of principles referred to in Article 6 1 TEU, confers upon the Commission monitoring competence with regard to the Member States.

This is confirmed by the fact that a reasoned proposal is required. Also in these policy areas the Commission can make proposals only if it is informed about the situation in the Member States.

Gisela Spreitzhofer

Also the decision by the European Parliament to set up a temporary committee examining whether the Member States have infringed Article 6 TEU by taking anti-terrorism measures points in this direction. This competence to monitor and even control the Member States is due to a fundamental constitutional innovation of the Amsterdam Treaty. Putting down explicit prerequisites for structural compatibility, or homogeneity , as many put it, in Article 6 1 TEU, the contracting parties formulate uniform standards of the democratic rule of law for all bearers of public authority in the European constitutional area and confer upon the Union the task of guaranteeing a liberal-democratic constitutional system.

In the present context, monitoring is admissible only if protection and promotion of cultural diversity in the sense of minority rights belong to the principles of Article 6 1 TEU. The wording remains silent. However, the legitimacy, maybe even the legality, of the diversity governance regarding the transformation countries depends on Article 6 1 TEU requiring the protection of minority rights; the majority of the commentators thus sees it as rooted in the notion of democracy.

There is the prospect that EU internal monitoring might change the understanding of democracy in the EU Member States along the lines of the international law of cultural diversity. It is first necessary that an objective cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States. The report by the EU Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights concerning the protection of minorities shows that the situation of minorities and immigrant groups in the Member States of the Union does not always meet international standards.

Moreover, the treatment of some groups, especially the Sinti and Romanies, is sometimes so bad that the threshold of Article 7 1 TEU may be reached. It is not to be expected that other supranational or international institutions, first and foremost the ECHR, can correct these grievances on their own. Secondly, the principle of subsidiarity demands that the Union contribute to furthering the objective. In this respect there are few indications of a well-founded judgment.

The diversity governance with respect to the transformation countries and findings as to its limited success raises some doubts. However, since such a decision has to be taken in accordance with Article 1 TEC, only 14 insightful governments are needed in order to move the Union in this direction.

The human rights conditionality often incorporated by the Union in its international agreements can be interpreted as an instrument for the global promotion of cultural diversity. By means of this contribution it can be demonstrated how the Union has by now become a political actor, using the international law of cultural diversity to strengthen European unity.

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According to its general status with UNESCO, the Union was initially only able to send the Commission as observer with a rather passive role; that also served to preserve the national competences in the cultural field. This Diversity Convention benefits European unity in many respects. It confirms that the European states can only collectively assert themselves against the USA. It promotes European unification, since the Union can, under the legal personality of the EC, ratify the convention itself; this strengthens not only its international role but also its influence in the cultural field.

Furthermore, the Diversity Convention serves the acceptance under international law of an important EU internal policy in the area of diversity management and the development of a European cultural area, namely media politics with its quotas which are problematic under WTO law. Altogether the Diversity Convention proves to be an expedient instrument of the Union's policy in many respects. The activities of the Union within the framework of the UNESCO convention show that it strives to play a role in global diversity politics.

An important trump in the global diversity discourse is its own diversity-oriented constitution, a source of inspiration for a diversity-preserving design of political organizations, be it for supranational institutions with public authority, or be it for federal state constitutions. The constitution of the Union aims first and foremost for the preservation of the diversity of national cultures, even if this is not required by international law.

Herein the will for self-assertion of the European states and peoples reveals itself. Many characteristics of the Union's constitutional law can be explained from this perspective: the lack of will to found a state, the lack of a comprehensive defence and solidarity community, the lack of formation of a proper nation. The European enterprise is constituted on the premise of distinct, state-organized peoples that are supposed to maintain distinct identities.