Schubert 4 Impromtus op. Liszt Isoldes Liebestod C. Rachmaninov Wohin the Brooklet F. Rachmaninov Liebesleid Liebesfreud A. Bartok Suite op. Khachaturian Toccata V. Tubin Sonata no. Ferguson Five Bagatelles L-E. Larsson Sonatine no. Ligeti from Studies: Arc-en-ciel H.
Eklund Toccata e Adagio op. Nilsson Arctic Romance G.
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Valkare Etoiles Paris J. Jansson The Nightingale A. Nilsson Les cloches de la nuit Five orchesteral pieces Chaconne H. It is based upon the work of Nowak and Banks unpublished thesis which has been partly corrected and amended according to the latest research results especially those by Johannes Volker Schmidt. Within the individual sections the works are listed in chronological order whenever the exact date and order could have been established. Then follow the remaining works in alphabetical order of the German titles.
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The words "sketch" and "draft" are taken from Banks and mark an early resp. Nowak resp. Banks refers to the numbering in the respective works indexes. Every care has been taken, but mistakes cannot be ruled out completely, the more so as no autograph-based check could have been performed. Updated on August 23, Oper Herrmann's Battle. Chopin — Etude in E Major Op. Chopin — Etude in F Major Op. Chopin — Etude in F minor Op. Chopin — Etude in G flat Major Op. Chopin — Nocturne in E minor Op. Chopin — Variations Brillantes Op. Dvarionas — Etude in E Major B.
Dvarionas — Gavotte in E minor B. Dvarionas — Prelude in B flat Major B. Ginastera — Tres piezas Op. Grieg — Phantom Op. Haydn — Sonata in E flat, No. Kapustin — Etude Op. Liebermann — Nocturne Op. Liszt — Mephisto Waltz No. Liszt — Three Concert Etudes S.
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Mendelssohn — Songs without words Op. Moszkowski — Ettincelles Op. Winter heat losses after fire may be reduced due to the loss of an intercepting tree canopy which causes increased snow depths and thus increased insulation Our results, indicating strong effects of wildfire on soil thermal regimes in peat plateaus are contrasting to the minor effects of wildfire found in more southern non-permafrost bogs This could be due to greater ground-cover dominance in non-permafrost bogs of Sphagnum fuscum hummocks that remain light-colored following fire 32 , or due to differing effect of fire on near-surface soil moisture and consequently on soil thermal conductivity.
Fire severity did not appear to have any influence on the post-fire soil thermal regime. Fire severity is generally higher during droughts and for fires that occur later in the season The lack of an influence of fire severity may be due to the observed near-complete tree mortality and loss of lichens at all recently burned sites in this study Fig. Hence, tree mortality and lichen loss appear to occur regardless of fire severity, which suggests that fire severity does not moderate the immediate effects of fire on shading or albedo.
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Fire severity furthermore did not appear to influence vegetation recovery. Variability in fire severity is known to affect timing and trajectory of vegetation recovery in some Alaskan ecosystems with relatively shallow soils, since high severity fires have the potential to cause almost total loss of soil organic matter 34 , While there likely was substantial variability among sites with regards to depth of burn among our sites, the thick organic soils of the peat plateaus prevented complete peat combustion 36 , which likely explain the consistent trajectory of vegetation recovery across burned sites Fig.
The recovery of the soil thermal regime to pre-fire conditions coincided with vegetation reestablishment Fig. Slow, decadal, vegetation recovery was likely linked to the dry, cold, and nutrient poor conditions on burned peat plateaus. Influence of vegetation on shading, albedo, and snow pack dynamics during reestablishment may thus all have contributed to the recovery of the soil thermal regime 30 , 37 , Since taliks are likely to prevent effective heat loss from the permafrost core during winter, we consequently did not expect increased rates of thermokarst bog development due to complete permafrost thaw along peat plateau edges to last beyond 30 years after fire Fig.
Young thermokarst bogs are generally found along thawing peat plateau edges, and they have a distinct vegetation composition that is clearly discernable in high resolution satellite imagery Figs. The transition from young to mature thermokarst bog is defined by a shift in dominance from Sphagnum riparium and Scheuchzeria palustris to Sphagnum fuscum and ericaceous shrubs In order to determine the effect of wildfire on thermokarst bog development, we chose to study four large peatlands that were partially affected by wildfire 20—30 years ago.
The four peatlands were chosen for this analysis since the 20—30 years since fire coincided with the duration over which wildfire was found to influence peat plateau soil thermal regime, and thus likely also the period over which it would influence the rate of thermokarst bog development.
Hence, we expected the majority of the cumulative effect of wildfire on thermokarst bog development to be accounted for by choosing sites that burned 20—30 year ago. However, analysis using the chosen sites cannot rule out effects of wildfire on thermokarst bog expansion extending beyond this time frame, and as such our analysis is potentially conservative. By assessing the spatial extents of peat plateaus, young thermokarst bogs and mature thermokarst bogs within each peatland we were able to estimate rates of thermokarst bog development over the last 60— years, a period which includes but extends beyond the influence of the more recent wildfires Fig.
Classification of peat plateau, young thermokarst bog, and mature thermokarst bog using high resolution satellite imagery in peatlands partially affected by historical wildfires.
Satellite images were acquired in , the burn occurred in Precision of the supervised classification was assessed by comparison with field-determined dGPS locations of transitions between peat plateau, young thermokarst bog, and mature thermokarst bogs at the Zama site Supplementary Fig. The field validation thus showed that the supervised classification of young thermokarst bogs would be able to provide a both precise and unbiased measure of differences in thermokarst bog expansion between burned and unburned peatland parts.
Average coverage of young thermokarst bogs within burned and unburned peatland parts was 8.
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While the effect of wildfire was largely consistent between sites, we did observed a large variability in average young thermokarst bog coverage between unburned sites, ranging from 2. While no direct climate data for the 60th Parallel site was available, this site was located both at a low elevation and in the southernmost part of the study region, and would thus be expected to have the warmest climate, thus possibly explaining the greatest young thermokarst bog coverage within the unburned areas among our four sites.
This implied effect of climate on thermokarst bog development in unburned peatland parts 23 contrasted with the lack of an observed difference in soil thermal regimes among unburned sites Fig. Effect of wildfire on permafrost thaw through development of young thermokarst bogs in western Canadian peatlands. Sites are ordered left to right by likely decreasing mean annual air temperature, see text for justification.
Young thermokarst bogs persist for 60— years before succession into mature thermokarst bogs 17 , suggesting that a significant proportion of young thermokarst bogs currently present developed prior to the more recent fires. The effect of wildfire on thermokarst bog development must however be greater than indicated by differences in current coverage of young thermokarst bogs, since much of the currently present young thermokarst bogs developed prior to the fires that occurred 20—30 years ago Fig.
In order to estimate rates of young thermokarst bog development at each of the four sites after the fire, expressed as percent of total peatland area developed into young thermokarst bogs each year, we made three assumptions. The first assumption was that burned and unburned peatland parts had similar rates of young thermokarst bog development prior to the fire.
The third assumption was that the rate of thermokarst bog expansion is likely to have increased over the last 30 years also in unburned peatland parts, due to ongoing climate change 20 , 21 , 22 see Methods for further details. Using these three assumptions, we estimated the rate of young thermokarst bog development prior to the fire, following fire in burned parts, and following fire in unburned parts for each of our four sites Supplementary Fig.
Across our four sites, this analysis indicated that the rate of young thermokarst bog development within peatlands nearly tripled after fire, to 0. Rate of young thermokarst bog development can also be expressed as rates of peat plateau loss, i. As such, our estimated rates of peat plateau loss following fire were 0. Our resulting estimated rate of peat plateau loss within unburned peatlands was similar, but in the low range, to what other studies have estimated in the study region using historical image change detection 0.
In order to estimate the total area of peat plateau loss due to thermokarst bog development within the study region over the last 30 years, we combined the distribution of peat plateaus, the distribution and timing of fires Fig. Our remote sensing analysis cannot rule out any effects beyond 30 years after fire, and as such this is potentially a conservative measure of the effect of wildfire on thermokarst bog development.
It is not clear from this study whether the role of wildfire as a driver of thermokarst bog expansion has become relatively more important, as it likely that thermokarst bog development due to both climate warming and increased fire occurrence have increased over the last 30 years compared to earlier periods. Overall, this study shows that wildfire has been a major driver of peat plateau loss due to accelerated thermokarst bog development in boreal western Canada, and thus likely a major cause of permafrost thaw in this region where a majority of the permafrost is found in peatlands.
In this study, we showed that wildfire in boreal peatlands within the discontinuous permafrost zone cause permafrost thaw through active layer deepening and talik expansion on peat plateaus, but also through accelerated thermokarst bog development along peat plateau edges. Our findings expand on earlier research that has highlighted the importance of wildfire as a driver of permafrost thaw 25 , 26 , 39 , 40 , particularly by being able to estimate the temporal horizon for effects of wildfire on soil thermal regimes, and being able to estimate the areal extents of complete permafrost thaw over the last 30 years caused by accelerated thermokarst bog development after wildfire.