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They might once have been found in numbers in the northern provinces of Italy, in Flanders, in Cologne, Bamberg, Wurzburg, and Ems. In all these quarters the ascendancy of Catholicism was now almost undivided, and the balance of political power was immensely in its favour. Spain, though in a state of decadence, was still the greatest colonial power in the world. Of the Protestant States Sweden was too poor and too remote to exercise much permanent influence, and she had for many years been little more than a satellite of France; Holland had been raised under a succession of able leaders to an importance much beyond her natural resources, but her very existence as an independent power was menaced by her too powerful neighbour; Edition: orig; Page: [ 20 ] England had sunk since the Restoration into complete insignificance, and a bigoted Catholic had now mounted her throne.

The Peace of Westphalia had been more than once violated in Germany to the detriment of the Protestants, and several petty German princes had already abandoned the faith. That great Protestant country which is now Prussia, was then the insignificant Electorate of Brandenburg, and was but just beginning, under an Elector of great ability, to emerge from obscurity. That great country, which now forms the United States of America, consisted then of a few rude and infant colonies, exercising no kind of influence beyond their borders, and although the policy of Roman Catholic nations was by no means invariably subservient to the Church, the movement of religious scepticism which now makes the preponderance of intelligence and energy in every Roman Catholic country hostile to the priests had not yet arisen.

From almost every point of the compass dark and threatening clouds were gathering around the Protestant cause, and the year was pronounced the most fatal in all its annals.

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In February an English king declared himself a Papist. In June Charles, the Elector Palatine, dying without issue, the electoral dignity passed to the bigoted Popish house of Neuburg. Bartholomew in France. In December the Duke of Savoy was induced by French persuasion to put an end to the toleration of the Vaudois. Happily for the interests of the world the religious difference was not the sole or the chief line of national division, and the terror that was excited by the ambition of France enlisted a great part of Catholic Europe on the side of William.

The King of Spain was decidedly in his favour, and the Spanish ambassador at the Hague is said to have ordered masses in his chapel for the success of the expedition. He appears to have seen the probability of a reaction, and he wished the King to restrict himself to endeavouring to obtain toleration for his coreligionists, and the English Catholics to abstain as much as possible from political ambition and from every course that could arouse the popular indignation.

He had directed the general of the Jesuits to rebuke Father Petre for his ambition, and he positively refused the urgent request of James to raise his favourite to the episcopate and to the purple. On the other hand he looked with extreme apprehension and dislike upon the policy of Lewis XIV. In the interests of Europe he clearly saw that the overwhelming power and the insatiable ambition of the French king formed the greatest danger of the time, and that the complete subserviency of England was a main element of his strength. In the interests of the Church he dreaded the attempts of Lewis, while constituting himself the great representative and protector of Catholicism in Europe, to make himself almost as absolute in ecclesiastical as in temporal affairs.

The French king had for some time shown a peculiar jealousy of papal authority, and a peculiar desire to humiliate it. In a former pontificate he had made use for this purpose of a quarrel which had arisen between some Corsican guards of the Pope and some Frenchmen attached to the embassy at Rome, had seized Avignon, had threatened to invade Rome, and had compelled Alexander VII. The antagonism arose on the question of the right, or the alleged right, of the French Edition: orig; Page: [ 22 ] sovereign to appoint to ecclesiastical benefices in France during the vacancy of the episcopal sees.

The claim had long been contested by the Pope, but it was admitted by the French clergy, who were now closely allied to the sovereign, and were looking forward to the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The dispute led to the famous articles of , by which the French Church denied that the Pope possessed by Divine right any temporal jurisdiction, declared its adhesion to the decrees by which the Council of Constance asserted the supremacy of general councils, and maintained that the rules and customs of the Gallican Church must prevail in France, that the apostolic power should only be exercised in accordance with the canons, and that even on questions of dogma the papal decrees were fallible, unless they had been confirmed by the general adoption of the Church.

These articles, which were the foundation of Gallican liberties, were published by order of the king, and registered by the parliaments and universities, while the Pope protested strongly against them, and began to refuse bulls to those whom the king nominated to vacant bishoprics. A still more bitter quarrel speedily followed. The Pope desired to abolish the scandalous right of sanctuary, by virtue of which the precincts of the hotels of the ambassadors of the Great Powers at Rome had become nests of smugglers, bankrupts, and thieves, and as all the Great Powers except France readily acquiesced in the reform, he announced his intention of receiving no ambassador who would not renounce the shameful privilege.

Lewis, however, determined to maintain it. Contrary to the expressed desire of the Pope, he sent an ambassador to Rome, with instructions to assert the right of sanctuary, and he directed him to enter Rome as if it were a conquered town, escorted by a large body of French troops. The Pope refused to receive the ambassador, excommunicated him, and placed the French church at Rome, in which he had worshipped, under interdict, while the King retaliated by arresting the Nuncio at Paris.

Nearly at the same time the important electorate and archbishopric of Cologne became vacant, and the Pope opposed a favourite scheme of Lewis by refusing his assent to the promotion to these dignities of the French candidate, Cardinal Furstenberg. Lewis, on the other hand, accused the Pope of Edition: orig; Page: [ 23 ] conspiring with the enemies of France.

He espoused the claims of the Duke of Parma to some parts of the Papal dominions, seized Avignon, and threatened to send an army to Italy. Under these circumstances Innocent was fully disposed to listen with favour to any scheme which promised to repress the ambition and arrest the growing power of the French king.

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He was assured that William would grant toleration to the English Catholics, and he actually favoured the enterprise with his influence, and it is said even with his money. The balance of power was redressed. The whole weight of English influence was thrown into the scale against France, and a servitude which had incessantly galled the national sentiment of England was removed. Very soon, however, the antipathy to foreigners began to act against the Whigs. It was not simply that William was a foreign prince, who had overthrown a sovereign of English birth.

It was not simply that he never concealed his partiality for his own country, that he surrounded himself with Dutch guards and with Dutch favourites, whom he rewarded with lavish profusion. There lay beyond this another and a deeper complaint. William was the ruler of a continental State placed in a position of extreme and constant danger. Wason, and widely circulated, in which the two districts of Bury St.

Edmund's and Ipswich were compared in population and other res- pects, by which, upon an examination of numbers it appeared that the latter locality possessed a majority over the former of upwards of 88, inhabitants. A second bill was accordingly prepared and brought before the Commons, but with a degree of fatality unfortunately attending the whole proceedings, was eventually dropped through the lateness of the session.

The New Courts were therefore erected, lodgings for the Judges constructed in the rear of the Assembly Rooms, and the first assize as before stated was held in , before Mr. Justice Vaughan and Mr. Justice Bosanquet. Among other public buildings in the town, is the East Suffolk Hospital, erected in It was built by Mr. Backhouse, after the design of Mr. It is capable of taking 40 patients, and is entirely sup- ported by private donations and subscriptions. It owes its origin to the charitable design of A.

Baird, Esq. There are many dissenting places of worship in Ipswich. Turret Green chapel, Baptists, emanating from Stoke Green, erected Friar's Street chapel, Wesleyan New Connexion, erected Tacket Street chapel, Independents, erected Nonconformity made its appearance at a very early period in the county of Suffolk, and also in the town of Ipswich. The Rev. Harmer a dissenting minister living at Wattisfield, who died Nov.

A building called a Temperance Hall, stands in Temperance Street. Its uses are sufficiently indicated by its name. It was erected at the sole expense of R. Alexander, Esq. At the rear of these premises are the Judges' lodgings, where their lordships reside during the hold- ing of the summer assizes. Upon the Com Hill is the Com Exchange, built in , on the site of the Rotunda, erected in the latter end of the last century, by the late Mr.

Gooding, architect. Bacon, Dykes Alexander, Wm. This last building closes the list of public struc- tures connected with Ipswich.

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That they are not numerous and possess but few exterior marks of beauty has already been observed. From the rapid advance made by the town within the last ten years, no doubt can exist that, in process of time, Ipswich will exhibit as many fine buildings of a pubHc character as other towns of much larger size and importance. That the town of Ipswich has held a remarkable character in the possession of rich merchants' houses, the words of Old Fuller, previously quoted, fully at- test, and those yet preserved bear out the truth of his remarks.

Nonconformity and the Electorate in Eighteenth‐Century England

The mansions of Ipswich merchants in the 16th and 17th centuries, still to be found ornamenting the parish of St. Clement, are worthy of close in- spection, and not only show the taste of the age in such matters, but attest the wealth and importance of those who, once inhabitants of the place, have now passed away from us into the impenetrable shadow of the grave.

The first ancient mansion arresting attention pass- ing down Fore-street, St. George Ridley, wine mer- chant.

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It carries a series of fine bay windows on the first story, and ornamented eaves. It was built in , and has a fine architectural exterior. The next house of this character worthy of notice is the Neptune Inn, an exceedingly fine specimen, and not built for its present purposes. Here are similar windows to the foregoing house, and carved eaves. Within, is much good wood carving, in wainscoting, ceilings, and fire-places. The rear of the premises indicates erection at a period far anterior to the front, which bears the date A few doors from the Neptune, towards the lower end of the street, is the gable of a fine house, on which appears the date It forms a dweUing to one of the malting establishments of John Cobbold, Esq.

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It is quite evident upon examination, that the part existing is but a portion of the whole, and that the entire erec- tion was one of great beauty and magnitude. Perhaps the most interesting specimen of an an- cient house which this district exhibits is to be found in a passage leading from St. Clement's street to the Quay, familiarly called Brown's yard.

What remains in the year is in a sad condition of dilapida- tion, from which it is not likely to be rescued. The front of the building next St. Clement's street is not so ancient as the back, the former bearing date only. The rear is certainly of the period of Eliza- beth, perhaps of Edward VI, and is worthy inspection.